Former President of Tanzania
• Former President of Tanzania (1995-2006);
• United States Ambassador (1983-1984);
• High Commissioner in Canada (1982);
• High Commissioner in Nigeria (1976);
• Tanzana News Agency, Founder (1976);
• Secretary of Press (1974);
• Editor of the daily governmental Tanzania Nationalism and Uhuru (1962-1966); and
• Civil servant in the district of Dodoma and Dar es Salaam, which united with Zanzibar in 1963 to form present day Tanzania.
Makerere University College, Uganda (Bachelor of Arts in English, 1962).